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authorAndrew Hunter <ahh@google.com>2014-09-04 14:17:16 -0700
committerGreg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>2014-10-09 12:23:49 -0700
commit79d627d4cd0f2823115f70843c16709ba2869611 (patch)
treed9bfc57e1926de33467a1b11c08a84337428804f
parent1c1e2cc7f5140a38ffbe2d3ffd037c09969c4860 (diff)
jiffies: Fix timeval conversion to jiffies
commit d78c9300c51d6ceed9f6d078d4e9366f259de28c upstream. timeval_to_jiffies tried to round a timeval up to an integral number of jiffies, but the logic for doing so was incorrect: intervals corresponding to exactly N jiffies would become N+1. This manifested itself particularly repeatedly stopping/starting an itimer: setitimer(ITIMER_PROF, &val, NULL); setitimer(ITIMER_PROF, NULL, &val); would add a full tick to val, _even if it was exactly representable in terms of jiffies_ (say, the result of a previous rounding.) Doing this repeatedly would cause unbounded growth in val. So fix the math. Here's what was wrong with the conversion: we essentially computed (eliding seconds) jiffies = usec * (NSEC_PER_USEC/TICK_NSEC) by using scaling arithmetic, which took the best approximation of NSEC_PER_USEC/TICK_NSEC with denominator of 2^USEC_JIFFIE_SC = x/(2^USEC_JIFFIE_SC), and computed: jiffies = (usec * x) >> USEC_JIFFIE_SC and rounded this calculation up in the intermediate form (since we can't necessarily exactly represent TICK_NSEC in usec.) But the scaling arithmetic is a (very slight) *over*approximation of the true value; that is, instead of dividing by (1 usec/ 1 jiffie), we effectively divided by (1 usec/1 jiffie)-epsilon (rounding down). This would normally be fine, but we want to round timeouts up, and we did so by adding 2^USEC_JIFFIE_SC - 1 before the shift; this would be fine if our division was exact, but dividing this by the slightly smaller factor was equivalent to adding just _over_ 1 to the final result (instead of just _under_ 1, as desired.) In particular, with HZ=1000, we consistently computed that 10000 usec was 11 jiffies; the same was true for any exact multiple of TICK_NSEC. We could possibly still round in the intermediate form, adding something less than 2^USEC_JIFFIE_SC - 1, but easier still is to convert usec->nsec, round in nanoseconds, and then convert using time*spec*_to_jiffies. This adds one constant multiplication, and is not observably slower in microbenchmarks on recent x86 hardware. Tested: the following program: int main() { struct itimerval zero = {{0, 0}, {0, 0}}; /* Initially set to 10 ms. */ struct itimerval initial = zero; initial.it_interval.tv_usec = 10000; setitimer(ITIMER_PROF, &initial, NULL); /* Save and restore several times. */ for (size_t i = 0; i < 10; ++i) { struct itimerval prev; setitimer(ITIMER_PROF, &zero, &prev); /* on old kernels, this goes up by TICK_USEC every iteration */ printf("previous value: %ld %ld %ld %ld\n", prev.it_interval.tv_sec, prev.it_interval.tv_usec, prev.it_value.tv_sec, prev.it_value.tv_usec); setitimer(ITIMER_PROF, &prev, NULL); } return 0; } Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com> Cc: Paul Turner <pjt@google.com> Cc: Richard Cochran <richardcochran@gmail.com> Cc: Prarit Bhargava <prarit@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Paul Turner <pjt@google.com> Reported-by: Aaron Jacobs <jacobsa@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Hunter <ahh@google.com> [jstultz: Tweaked to apply to 3.17-rc] Signed-off-by: John Stultz <john.stultz@linaro.org> [bwh: Backported to 3.16: adjust filename] Signed-off-by: Ben Hutchings <ben@decadent.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
-rw-r--r--include/linux/jiffies.h12
-rw-r--r--kernel/time.c54
2 files changed, 30 insertions, 36 deletions
diff --git a/include/linux/jiffies.h b/include/linux/jiffies.h
index 1f44466c1e9d..c367cbdf73ab 100644
--- a/include/linux/jiffies.h
+++ b/include/linux/jiffies.h
@@ -258,23 +258,11 @@ extern unsigned long preset_lpj;
#define SEC_JIFFIE_SC (32 - SHIFT_HZ)
#endif
#define NSEC_JIFFIE_SC (SEC_JIFFIE_SC + 29)
-#define USEC_JIFFIE_SC (SEC_JIFFIE_SC + 19)
#define SEC_CONVERSION ((unsigned long)((((u64)NSEC_PER_SEC << SEC_JIFFIE_SC) +\
TICK_NSEC -1) / (u64)TICK_NSEC))
#define NSEC_CONVERSION ((unsigned long)((((u64)1 << NSEC_JIFFIE_SC) +\
TICK_NSEC -1) / (u64)TICK_NSEC))
-#define USEC_CONVERSION \
- ((unsigned long)((((u64)NSEC_PER_USEC << USEC_JIFFIE_SC) +\
- TICK_NSEC -1) / (u64)TICK_NSEC))
-/*
- * USEC_ROUND is used in the timeval to jiffie conversion. See there
- * for more details. It is the scaled resolution rounding value. Note
- * that it is a 64-bit value. Since, when it is applied, we are already
- * in jiffies (albit scaled), it is nothing but the bits we will shift
- * off.
- */
-#define USEC_ROUND (u64)(((u64)1 << USEC_JIFFIE_SC) - 1)
/*
* The maximum jiffie value is (MAX_INT >> 1). Here we translate that
* into seconds. The 64-bit case will overflow if we are not careful,
diff --git a/kernel/time.c b/kernel/time.c
index 7c7964c33ae7..3c49ab45f822 100644
--- a/kernel/time.c
+++ b/kernel/time.c
@@ -496,17 +496,20 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(usecs_to_jiffies);
* that a remainder subtract here would not do the right thing as the
* resolution values don't fall on second boundries. I.e. the line:
* nsec -= nsec % TICK_NSEC; is NOT a correct resolution rounding.
+ * Note that due to the small error in the multiplier here, this
+ * rounding is incorrect for sufficiently large values of tv_nsec, but
+ * well formed timespecs should have tv_nsec < NSEC_PER_SEC, so we're
+ * OK.
*
* Rather, we just shift the bits off the right.
*
* The >> (NSEC_JIFFIE_SC - SEC_JIFFIE_SC) converts the scaled nsec
* value to a scaled second value.
*/
-unsigned long
-timespec_to_jiffies(const struct timespec *value)
+static unsigned long
+__timespec_to_jiffies(unsigned long sec, long nsec)
{
- unsigned long sec = value->tv_sec;
- long nsec = value->tv_nsec + TICK_NSEC - 1;
+ nsec = nsec + TICK_NSEC - 1;
if (sec >= MAX_SEC_IN_JIFFIES){
sec = MAX_SEC_IN_JIFFIES;
@@ -517,6 +520,13 @@ timespec_to_jiffies(const struct timespec *value)
(NSEC_JIFFIE_SC - SEC_JIFFIE_SC))) >> SEC_JIFFIE_SC;
}
+
+unsigned long
+timespec_to_jiffies(const struct timespec *value)
+{
+ return __timespec_to_jiffies(value->tv_sec, value->tv_nsec);
+}
+
EXPORT_SYMBOL(timespec_to_jiffies);
void
@@ -533,31 +543,27 @@ jiffies_to_timespec(const unsigned long jiffies, struct timespec *value)
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(jiffies_to_timespec);
-/* Same for "timeval"
+/*
+ * We could use a similar algorithm to timespec_to_jiffies (with a
+ * different multiplier for usec instead of nsec). But this has a
+ * problem with rounding: we can't exactly add TICK_NSEC - 1 to the
+ * usec value, since it's not necessarily integral.
*
- * Well, almost. The problem here is that the real system resolution is
- * in nanoseconds and the value being converted is in micro seconds.
- * Also for some machines (those that use HZ = 1024, in-particular),
- * there is a LARGE error in the tick size in microseconds.
-
- * The solution we use is to do the rounding AFTER we convert the
- * microsecond part. Thus the USEC_ROUND, the bits to be shifted off.
- * Instruction wise, this should cost only an additional add with carry
- * instruction above the way it was done above.
+ * We could instead round in the intermediate scaled representation
+ * (i.e. in units of 1/2^(large scale) jiffies) but that's also
+ * perilous: the scaling introduces a small positive error, which
+ * combined with a division-rounding-upward (i.e. adding 2^(scale) - 1
+ * units to the intermediate before shifting) leads to accidental
+ * overflow and overestimates.
+ *
+ * At the cost of one additional multiplication by a constant, just
+ * use the timespec implementation.
*/
unsigned long
timeval_to_jiffies(const struct timeval *value)
{
- unsigned long sec = value->tv_sec;
- long usec = value->tv_usec;
-
- if (sec >= MAX_SEC_IN_JIFFIES){
- sec = MAX_SEC_IN_JIFFIES;
- usec = 0;
- }
- return (((u64)sec * SEC_CONVERSION) +
- (((u64)usec * USEC_CONVERSION + USEC_ROUND) >>
- (USEC_JIFFIE_SC - SEC_JIFFIE_SC))) >> SEC_JIFFIE_SC;
+ return __timespec_to_jiffies(value->tv_sec,
+ value->tv_usec * NSEC_PER_USEC);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(timeval_to_jiffies);