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Upgrading I2C Drivers to the new 2.6 Driver Model
=================================================

Ben Dooks <ben-linux@fluff.org>

Introduction
------------

This guide outlines how to alter existing Linux 2.6 client drivers from
the old to the new new binding methods.


Example old-style driver
------------------------


struct example_state {
	struct i2c_client	client;
	....
};

static struct i2c_driver example_driver;

static unsigned short ignore[] = { I2C_CLIENT_END };
static unsigned short normal_addr[] = { OUR_ADDR, I2C_CLIENT_END };

I2C_CLIENT_INSMOD;

static int example_attach(struct i2c_adapter *adap, int addr, int kind)
{
	struct example_state *state;
	struct device *dev = &adap->dev;  /* to use for dev_ reports */
	int ret;

	state = kzalloc(sizeof(struct example_state), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (state == NULL) {
		dev_err(dev, "failed to create our state\n");
		return -ENOMEM;
	}

	example->client.addr    = addr;
	example->client.flags   = 0;
	example->client.adapter = adap;

	i2c_set_clientdata(&state->i2c_client, state);
	strlcpy(client->i2c_client.name, "example", I2C_NAME_SIZE);

	ret = i2c_attach_client(&state->i2c_client);
	if (ret < 0) {
		dev_err(dev, "failed to attach client\n");
		kfree(state);
		return ret;
	}

	dev = &state->i2c_client.dev;

	/* rest of the initialisation goes here. */

	dev_info(dev, "example client created\n");

	return 0;
}

static int __devexit example_detach(struct i2c_client *client)
{
	struct example_state *state = i2c_get_clientdata(client);

	i2c_detach_client(client);
	kfree(state);
	return 0;
}

static int example_attach_adapter(struct i2c_adapter *adap)
{
	return i2c_probe(adap, &addr_data, example_attach);
}

static struct i2c_driver example_driver = {
 	.driver		= {
		.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
		.name		= "example",
	},
	.attach_adapter = example_attach_adapter,
	.detach_client	= __devexit_p(example_detach),
	.suspend	= example_suspend,
	.resume		= example_resume,
};


Updating the client
-------------------

The new style binding model will check against a list of supported
devices and their associated address supplied by the code registering
the busses. This means that the driver .attach_adapter and
.detach_adapter methods can be removed, along with the addr_data,
as follows:

- static struct i2c_driver example_driver;

- static unsigned short ignore[] = { I2C_CLIENT_END };
- static unsigned short normal_addr[] = { OUR_ADDR, I2C_CLIENT_END };

- I2C_CLIENT_INSMOD;

- static int example_attach_adapter(struct i2c_adapter *adap)
- {
- 	return i2c_probe(adap, &addr_data, example_attach);
- }

 static struct i2c_driver example_driver = {
-	.attach_adapter = example_attach_adapter,
-	.detach_client	= __devexit_p(example_detach),
 }

Add the probe and remove methods to the i2c_driver, as so:

 static struct i2c_driver example_driver = {
+	.probe		= example_probe,
+	.remove		= __devexit_p(example_remove),
 }

Change the example_attach method to accept the new parameters
which include the i2c_client that it will be working with:

- static int example_attach(struct i2c_adapter *adap, int addr, int kind)
+ static int example_probe(struct i2c_client *client,
+			   const struct i2c_device_id *id)

Change the name of example_attach to example_probe to align it with the
i2c_driver entry names. The rest of the probe routine will now need to be
changed as the i2c_client has already been setup for use.

The necessary client fields have already been setup before
the probe function is called, so the following client setup
can be removed:

-	example->client.addr    = addr;
-	example->client.flags   = 0;
-	example->client.adapter = adap;
-
-	strlcpy(client->i2c_client.name, "example", I2C_NAME_SIZE);

The i2c_set_clientdata is now:

-	i2c_set_clientdata(&state->client, state);
+	i2c_set_clientdata(client, state);

The call to i2c_attach_client is no longer needed, if the probe
routine exits successfully, then the driver will be automatically
attached by the core. Change the probe routine as so:

-	ret = i2c_attach_client(&state->i2c_client);
-	if (ret < 0) {
-		dev_err(dev, "failed to attach client\n");
-		kfree(state);
-		return ret;
-	}


Remove the storage of 'struct i2c_client' from the 'struct example_state'
as we are provided with the i2c_client in our example_probe. Instead we
store a pointer to it for when it is needed.

struct example_state {
-	struct i2c_client	client;
+	struct i2c_client	*client;

the new i2c client as so:

-	struct device *dev = &adap->dev;  /* to use for dev_ reports */
+ 	struct device *dev = &i2c_client->dev;  /* to use for dev_ reports */

And remove the change after our client is attached, as the driver no
longer needs to register a new client structure with the core:

-	dev = &state->i2c_client.dev;

In the probe routine, ensure that the new state has the client stored
in it:

static int example_probe(struct i2c_client *i2c_client,
			 const struct i2c_device_id *id)
{
	struct example_state *state;
 	struct device *dev = &i2c_client->dev;
	int ret;

	state = kzalloc(sizeof(struct example_state), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (state == NULL) {
		dev_err(dev, "failed to create our state\n");
		return -ENOMEM;
	}

+	state->client = i2c_client;

Update the detach method, by changing the name to _remove and
to delete the i2c_detach_client call. It is possible that you
can also remove the ret variable as it is not not needed for
any of the core functions.

- static int __devexit example_detach(struct i2c_client *client)
+ static int __devexit example_remove(struct i2c_client *client)
{
	struct example_state *state = i2c_get_clientdata(client);

-	i2c_detach_client(client);

And finally ensure that we have the correct ID table for the i2c-core
and other utilities:

+ struct i2c_device_id example_idtable[] = {
+       { "example", 0 },
+       { }
+};
+
+MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(i2c, example_idtable);

static struct i2c_driver example_driver = {
 	.driver		= {
		.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
		.name		= "example",
	},
+	.id_table	= example_ids,


Our driver should now look like this:

struct example_state {
	struct i2c_client	*client;
	....
};

static int example_probe(struct i2c_client *client,
		     	 const struct i2c_device_id *id)
{
	struct example_state *state;
	struct device *dev = &client->dev;

	state = kzalloc(sizeof(struct example_state), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (state == NULL) {
		dev_err(dev, "failed to create our state\n");
		return -ENOMEM;
	}

	state->client = client;
	i2c_set_clientdata(client, state);

	/* rest of the initialisation goes here. */

	dev_info(dev, "example client created\n");

	return 0;
}

static int __devexit example_remove(struct i2c_client *client)
{
	struct example_state *state = i2c_get_clientdata(client);

	kfree(state);
	return 0;
}

static struct i2c_device_id example_idtable[] = {
	{ "example", 0 },
	{ }
};

MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(i2c, example_idtable);

static struct i2c_driver example_driver = {
 	.driver		= {
		.owner		= THIS_MODULE,
		.name		= "example",
	},
	.id_table	= example_idtable,
	.probe		= example_probe,
	.remove		= __devexit_p(example_remove),
	.suspend	= example_suspend,
	.resume		= example_resume,
};